Infectious filariasis belongs to a group of common diseases in humans and animals. It is caused by penetration into the body of various species of worms, of which in our time there are more than three hundred species. The parasites are localized mainly in the intestines and liver, but some species can invade the lungs, heart, brain and other vital organs, which can lead to very serious consequences. It is important to detect the presence of helminths in the body at the earliest and take measures to eliminate them to avoid affecting health. After all, this disease can have many consequences, which can lead to death. But it is quite difficult to determine the presence of helminths that have entered the body, since the symptoms are similar to other diseases and it is difficult to say exactly which infection is attacking the body. It is important to understand what to look for when contacting a parasitologist.
Types of worms dangerous to humans
Worms that are dangerous to humans are divided into two groups:
- Parasites - pinworms, roundworms, whipworms, broad tapeworms and other parasites that live in the intestines.
- Tissue - echinococcosis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis and other parasites that can spread to all vital organs and affect them.
Most often, the following types of helminthic invasion are diagnosed in the human body: intestinal worm disease, ascariasis, filariasis, strongyloidiasis.
Methods of infection with worms
There are many ways for parasitic larvae to enter the body, among which the main ones can be distinguished:
- Contact - larvae are transmitted from person to person.
- Through insect bites.
- Through the land
- Through the water.
- With dust particles.
- From food that has undergone heat treatment is not enough.
The first manifestations of worms in the body
Upon entering the human body, worms do not manifest themselves immediately. This is the main problem. The first signs of a pinworm infestation may appear only after two weeks. Including:
- increased body temperature;
- abdominal pain;
- loss of appetite;
- the appearance of a headache;
- bowel disruption.
If, when feeling the first signs, promptly consult a doctor, many problems can be avoided.
Symptoms of the presence of worms in the human body
Inside the body, the parasite feeds on most of the nutrients and vitamins, significantly affecting health.
Symptoms of helminth infestation in adults:
- the presence of allergies;
- the appearance of acne and boils;
- unpleasant cough;
- reduced immunity;
- depressed and irritable state;
- pain in the joints;
- disorders of the digestive system.
Symptoms of lungworm infection
Pulmonary helminth infections may be asymptomatic for several years. After entering the human body, the parasite actively proliferates, when a significant amount is reached, symptoms such as:
- weakness and lack of strength;
- shortness of breath;
- wet cough;
- pain and discomfort in the chest area;
- nausea and vomiting;
- decreased appetite and weight loss.
In places where the parasite enters the lungs, adhesions will form and over time the shape of the lungs will change. Parasites cause diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, and pleurisy. In advanced cases, can lead to death.
The main signs of intestinal helminth disease
Normally, the habitat of worms in the human body is the intestines. The first symptoms appear when the helminths begin to actively reproduce:
- lack of energy and fatigue;
- itching in the anus;
- dermatitis and eczema on the skin.
Parasites poison the body with the products of their vital activity, and all this leads to a general state of weakness and lethargy.
Symptoms of worms in the stomach
This place is also a favorite place for worms, the symptoms are as follows:
- frequent indigestion, constipation that can suddenly turn into diarrhea;
- stomach and navel pain;
- decreased appetite;
- constant feeling of hunger;
Signs of Dirofilaria infection
This parasite appears in humans through insect bites. There are two forms of filariasis - eye and skin:
- The skin form is the most common and can appear from a mosquito bite, a small nodule forms here and it gradually migrates under the skin, causing discomfort. If you don't seek professional help in time, severe redness and pain will develop at the site of the injury.
- In the eye form, the parasite lives under the skin of the eyelid and has the ability to penetrate the eyeball. Symptoms are redness and swelling, conjunctivitis and an itchy sensation in the affected area, in addition, the patient constantly feels a foreign object in the eye. All this is accompanied by insomnia, stress and general weakness.
Symptoms of worms in the throat
The throat is one of the most sensitive places on the human body. When it becomes inflamed, we immediately feel pain and discomfort, but sometimes you can feel a tickle and lump in your throat, this is usually caused by worms. It is worth noting that the parasites cannot live in the throat, since this is not a favorable habitat for them. It occurs when parasites that develop in the digestive system grow to the point where they enter the throat through the esophagus, which is often accompanied by choking and a violent cough.
Symptoms of worms invading the brain
Brain damage usually occurs through the nose. When entering the brain, the worms will penetrate the cortical center, destroy brain cells and actively multiply. Instead of dead cells, dead tissue remains, leading to inflammatory processes in the brain. Without urgent medical attention to the patient, the patient can die within two weeks.
- severe pain in the head;
Symptoms of worm infestation in human blood
The blood is the habitat of some helminths, which have a very detrimental effect on the body. Symptoms include:
- intermittent fever;
- pain in the joints;
- numbness of limbs;
- enlarged lymph nodes.
How to recognize a worm infestation by a skin rash
One of the main manifestations of the presence of helminths is a great deterioration of the skin condition and the appearance of various rashes on it. This is due to the toxic substances secreted by the parasites. The most characteristic signs are as follows:
- intense itching;
- allergic rhinitis;
- seborrheic dermatitis;
- the appearance of papillomas;
- fragility of nails;
- increased hair loss;
- acne and pimples.
But you should not attribute all skin manifestations to worms in the body, the reasons can be different and only a dermatologist after conducting research can identify them.
Symptoms of helminthiasis in the form of metabolic disorders
Failures in the metabolism in the body should also warn. If, with a normal diet, significant weight loss or gain, anemia or physical malnutrition are detected, parasitic infection should be considered. Rapid weight loss can be caused by worms absorbing all the nutrients a person consumes. Weight gain can be stimulated by toxic substances secreted by worms, in response to them the body requires more food to get rid of the poison with it.
Symptoms from the immune system
Since the parasites feed on all the nutrients and vitamins that enter the body, the immune system is strongly suppressed and the person becomes susceptible to all kinds of infectious diseases and inflammatory processes of other organs. together. Chronic diseases are also on the rise.
From the side of the nervous system, the penetration of helminths is manifested by the following symptoms:
- increased fatigue;
- memory decline;
- depressed state;
- reduced performance and performance.
Signs of infection in children
Note! In children, the presence of pinworms and roundworms is most often diagnosed.
Worm infections in children have the following symptoms:
- picky eaters;
- pale facial skin;
- dark circles under the eyes;
- poor sleep, grinding teeth in a dream;
- headache, dizziness;
- general state of lethargy and weakness;
- the presence of worms in the child's stool;
- itching in the anus;
- a large amount of saliva in the mouth;
- lethargy and fatigue;
- an increase in body temperature for no apparent reason;
- allergic reactions, dermatitis, urticaria;
- inflammatory processes in the genitals;
- unpleasant cough;
- nausea and vomiting;
- frequent colds.
Advice! If your baby has three or more signs, you should immediately consult a doctor. Often, even a stool study is not accurate, so it is most effective to undergo a comprehensive examination.
It is important to understand that a small number of adult helminths in the body hardly cause any symptoms of helminth infestation in adults and children. Infection can only be confirmed or denied by passing laboratory tests and studies prescribed by the parasitologist on an individual basis.
Diagnosis of helminths
Since the body can only cure the parasites after they are detected and the symptoms of the infection are similar to those of other diseases, a competent diagnosis is very important. Her methods include:
- Serological analysis - detection of helminthic antibodies in the blood;
- Fecal analysis - helps determine the presence of larvae and adult fragments;
- Anabolic test - the study of scraping, performed near the anus;
- Check for dysbacteriosis;
- Computerized tomography;
It is very easy to get infected with worms but very difficult to treat, especially the chronic forms caused by helminth infections. The course of treatment includes antiparasitic drugs, immunomodulators, and adsorbents. The treatment regimen is only prescribed by the doctor, self-medication is not only ineffective but also dangerous.
Measures to prevent helminth infections
Prevention of the penetration of helminths is extremely important for children and adults, by following certain rules, you can significantly reduce the likelihood of infection with parasites. The presence of helminth infestations in humans, as a rule, is due to a lack of basic hygiene:
- make sure to wash your hands before handling food, on the way home, after coming into contact with animals;
- well, it is best to use special products, wash fruits and vegetables before eating or rinse them with boiling water;
- drink only filtered or boiled water;
- try to avoid insect bites;
- fish, meat and other similar products are thoroughly heat-treated;
- make sure that the child's nails are cut short;
- periodically wash children's toys using special products;
- make sure to boil items used by the patient for five minutes;
- twice a year to check the presence of helminths for a child and an adult;
- Weaning children with hands and other objects in their mouths, especially those that come in contact with soil.
The implementation of these measures is not difficult. Their compliance will be enough to protect you and your child from parasites as much as possible. If something is missed and symptoms of a worm infestation begin to appear, immediate treatment is recommended to prevent complications.